Tryengineering offers a list of lesson plans for teachers to help them with instruction in many areas of engineering and design, including robotics.
There are plenty of lesson plans, ideas, books and other helps for teachers who want to use LEGO brand building materials for teaching about robots. Check these sites:
Julian T Rubin
Lesson plans, background information, terms dictionary and science fair projects on lots of artificial intelligence and robotic topics. Scroll down past the advertising to get the best information.
The Tech Museum of Innovation
Great site for history, art, ethics, and lessons on robotics of all sorts.
University of Texas
Find out all of the different types of robots there are and how they are used. Great site for teachers, parents and kids of all ages.
The lesson here is intended for students in 6 - 8th grades, but the lesson could be modified as needed.