Rocks & Minerals

April 9, 2002

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A geologist

bed - a layer of sediment or sedimentary rock
boulder - a loose rock larger than 256 millimeters (10 inches)
cobble - loose particles of rock or mineral that are the size of gravel larger than pebbles, but smaller than boulders
conglomerate - sedimentary rock made of rounded pebbles held in together with a matrix
core - the huge mass in the very center of the Earth made mostly of iron and nickel. It is divided into an outer core and inner core
crust - the solid outermost part of the Earth. The crust is all the land you see and the land on the ocean bottom.
crystal - a solid in which the particles are arranged in a pattern to make shapes with flat surfaces
earthquake - sudden release of energy built up in an area on the crust or upper mantle sudden ground motion or vibration of the Earth
element - substances which cannot be broken down into other substances
erosion - the movement of weathered rocks and soil
formation - a body of rock with special that allow geologists to map, describe, and name it
fossil -something that has lasted from a living thing that died long ago. They can be body parts, that have turned into stone or animal tracks.
geologist - a scientist who studies geology
geology - the science of the rocks and minerals that compose the earth, of its structure, and of its history
gravel - all sedimentary particles larger than 2 millimeters is called gravel. Gravel is subdivided into pebbles, cobbles, and boulders.
igneous rock - rock formed when molten rock has cooled and solidified
intrusive rock - igneous rock that forms when magma cools below the Earth's surface
lava - molten rock that flows out onto the Earth’s surface
magma - molten rock that is located beneath the Earth's surface
mantle - the thick layer of very hot, melted rock between the crust and the core of the Earth
matrix - fine-grained material surrounding larger grains in a sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
- rocks that are changed from sedimentary, igneous or other metamorphic rocks by intense pressure and heat
mineral - a non-living, solid material with particles arranged in a repeating pattern called a crystal. A mineral is usually a combination of 2 or more elements. A mineral cannot be broken down into any other substance.
mineralogist - a scientist who studies the identification, properties, and distribution of minerals
Moh's scale - a scale used to measure the hardness of a mineral
molten - melted
pebbles - Loose particles of rock or mineral that range in size from 2 - 64 millimeters in diameter. Pebbles are the smallest type of gravel.
rock - a combination of 2 or more minerals which have been joined either by heat, temperature, pressure, or chemical changes
rock cycle - the process in which igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks are changed over time
sand - loose particles of rock or mineral that range in size from 0.0625 - 2.0 millimeters in diameter

sediment - material that comes from the weathering of rock or from from fragments of plants and animals that settles to the bottom of rivers, lakes, and seas
sedimentary rock - rock formed from rock types that have weathered, cemented, and/or Photo of aRocksqueezed together
sedimentation - the process of breaking up rocks into smaller fine pieces that sink to the bottom of rivers, lakes, and seas
shale - soft rock formed from layers of mud
soil - very small weathered fragments of rock mixed with decaying plant or animal material.
strata - layers, or bands, in rocks
volcanic - igneous rock that forms when magma cools on the Earth's surface
weathering - the breaking of rocks by water, snow, ice, wind, chemicals, gravity or plant roots
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