January 18 , 2005

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Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972, Section 404

Requires permits before disposing dredge or fill materials into waters of the United States; protects adjacent wetlands.

National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA)
Requires federal assessment of impacts to the environment, including wetlands, of any proposed projects by federal agencies; requires annual report to Congress on the status of the environment.

Executive Order 11990 (Protection of Wetlands)
See page 31.

Executive Order 11988 (Protection of Floodplains)
Issued by President Jimmy Carter, requires federal age n-cies to avoid activities in floodplains; also provides incentives to communities that preserve floodplains.

Food Securities Act of 1985 (Swampbuster)
Removes incentives to covert wetlands to cropland.

Coastal Zone Management Act
Establishes importance of preservation, protection, and restoration of coastal lands, including those of the Great Lakes.

Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
Requires all federal agencies to consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on wildlife impacts of any projects that involve water.

North American Wetlands Conservation Act
Part of the North American Wetlands Conservation Fund, which helps fund wetland conservation projects in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico.

Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection, and Restoration Act
Funds grants to states to purchase and protect coastal wetlands.

Water Resources Development Act of 1999
Authorizes $200 million for wetlands restoration for flood control.

1990 Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act
Establishes Wetland Reserve Program (WRP) to restore wetlands that were converted to cropland before 1985.

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