alpha animal the wolf with the highest standing in the pack. A pack has both an alpha male and an alpha female. They are usually the parents of most of the other members of the pack.

beta animal the second rank in the social order of a wolf pack. A wolf at this rank will usually dominate all of the other wolves in its gender except the alpha wolf.
boreal forest vegetation composed mainly evergreen trees, found in regions that have long winters and moderate to high annual rainfall, Boreal forests are also called taiga.
canid

a member of the carnivorous taxonomic family, Canidae, includes wolves, coyotes, foxes, domestic dogs, and jackals

carnivore an animal that eats meat
carrion the carcass (body) of a dead animal that becomes food for other animals.
color phase Wolf Pupthe color of an animal's fur, which is determined by genetics and may vary within a population. White, gray and black color phases may be seen within the same gray wolf population. The main color phase within a population often corresponds to the overall color of its environment. For example, the white color phase is the most common in arctic regions.
den a wolf's shelter, often a small cave or hole dug out of the ground, to protect the breeding female and her young pups from weather and other animals
dispersal the act of an organism leaving its birth-place and moving to where it will live as an adult
dominant a superior position that allows the animal to displace any other animal in the group. They can cause any other animal in the pack to back down from a confrontation or move away from food.
endangered referring to a species (plant or animal) currently in danger of extinction
extinct no longer in existence. Once a species is extinct, all individuals within this species have forever vanished from the planet.
habitat the natural environment of a species (plant or animal) that provides the food, water, shelter or cover and space required for it to survive
herbivorous an animal that feeds only on plants
howl the one form of communication used by wolves that can be heard over along distance. A defensive howl is used to keep the pack together and strangers away, to stand their ground and protect young pups who cannot yet travel from danger, and protect kill sites. A social howl is used to locate one another, rally together and possibly just for fun.
litter all of the pups born during a single birth to an adult female wolf
mate either member of a breeding pair of animals
Omega the lowest ranking member in the social order of a wolf pack
pack Wolf Packa family group of about 6 to 10 members that live and work together to hunt for food and take care of the pups. It usually consists of a male and female parent and their offspring from one or more generations.
pelage another name for fur
poaching Illegal taking of wildlife
predator an animal that kills and eats other animals to survive
prey an animal that is captured and eaten by another animal
pup a young wolf
radio-telemetry a way scientists can follow the movements of animals. They trap the animal and put a special collar on them. The collar emits a signal, like a radio signal, which researchers are able to follow with a receiver. Read more...
scat fecal matter or feces
scent-marking the act of marking an area with body odor, scent from a gland, or urine or scat. This technique is used by wolves to communicate with other wolves and animals. Scent marks tell other wolves the locations of a pack's boundaries.
taxonomy classification of plants and animals according to their natural relationships
territory an area occupied by a pack of wolves that can has enough prey to support the pack. It is defended against wolves from outside of the pack and from other animals that might compete for the same resources. Wolves protect their territory by scent-marking, vocal communication and fighting.
tundra treeless, level or rolling ground above the taiga in polar regions (Arctic tundra) or on high mountains (alpine tundra). Tundra usually are bare ground and rock or they might have mosses, lichens, small herbs, and low shrubs.
ungulate An Ungulate- Pronghorn Antelope

a hoofed herbivorous mammal. Deer, elk, bison, moose, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, and antelope are examples of ungulates.
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