TIME ALLOTMENT: 2 one hour lessons, 1 guest speaker (½ hour), 1 field trip
SUBJECT MATTER: Geology; rock types, the rock cycle
Students will be able to:
From the National
Science Education Standards, Content Standards K-4:
Content Standard A, Science as Inquiry As a result of activities in grades K-4, all students should develop: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry
Content Standard B, Physical Science As a result of the activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of:
Content Standard D, Earth and Space Science As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of:
Content Standard G, History and Nature of Science As a result of their activities in grades K-4, all students should develop an understanding of:
Native American Tales, “How Rocks were Made” or “The Old Man and the Rock” (there are many versions)
Iktomi and the Boulder by Paul Gobel
A geologic Glossary
from US Geological Survey http://www2.nature.nps.gov/
A great classroom
project about rocks and minerals created by students at John Ward Elementary
School in Newton, MA
This site from Volcano
World takes you through a slide show about rocks and minerals. It contains
good photos of rock samples.
This is the website
for The Canadian Rockhound Geological Magazine, otherwise known as “Junior
Rockhound Magazine, with clear explanations of the common terms of geology.
It includes a concise diagram of the rock cycle.
This Planet Really
Rocks" is a Thinkquest Junior website created by a team of fifth and sixth
grade students. This website contains information about the origin, classification,
recycling processes, and important uses of rocks and minerals. There are
photos, a glossary of geological terms, and other rocky activities. www.thinkquest.org/library/lib/site_sum
This website is a list of US State gems, minerals, rocks, and stones www.jewelrymall.com/stategems.html
Samples of sedimentary,
igneous, and metamorphic rocks:
PREP FOR TEACHER
This lesson works well as one in a complete unit on rocks and minerals, earthquakes, volcanoes or soil. Preview the video; know where your pause points are located. Order the rock samples or collect them yourself. Copy the worksheets. Prepare a large sheet of butcher paper or a bulletin board on which you will develop a diagram of the rock cycle. Invite the guest speaker. Prepare a TV/VCR, and an overhead projector. Preview the websites especially if you will use them for the optional activity. Bookmark the websites and load any plug-ins necessary. Make available many reference books about rocks.
Step 1. Read
a Native American Tale about how rocks were made. There are many authentic
tales. Paul Gobel’s, Iktomi and the Boulder, is also appropriate.
Explain that long ago, people handed down stories from generation to generation
to explain how the world and things in it came to be. Determine that the
topic of the lesson will be the “scientific” explanation about how rocks
VIEWING ACTIVITIES VIEWING ACTIVITIES
Step 1. Viewing the video. Explain to the students that by watching the video, Eyewitness: Mountains #310 they will see images of three types of rock that are involved in the rock cycle. They will learn will be introduced to weathering, erosion and sediments.
The FOCUS FOR MEDIA INTERACTION will be the discussions and questions generated during the pauses in the video. In addition, the students will fill in the rock cycle worksheet as they discuss the processes and vocabulary presented during the segments. Hand out the rock cycle worksheet with the empty spaces. Use the overhead projector as you add the words to the rock cycle. In addition, write them on the board.
Students will hold and explore samples of sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks and sediments. The segments chosen last about 5 minutes. Before class, CUE the video to the place just after the egg breaks during the discussion of old theories about how mountains are made. PLAY until you see the layers of sediment. STOP.
Discuss sediment and focus the students’ attention on the layers. Review how erosion works to break apart the rock before it becomes sediment. Show the layers in the sedimentary rock sample and pass around the jar of sediment. Put “sediment”, “sedimentary rock”, and “depositing” on the rock cycle. Discuss how water can help to make rocks smoother. (Water carries sand and pebbles that help wear down the edges of rocks.) SKIP the discussion about the movement of plates.
START right after the last visual of the tectonic plates and PLAY with the sound off through the discussion about the growth of the Himalayas, and through the volcano images that show molten rock. Explain in your words what the students are seeing; (The Himalayas are active and grow about ¼ “ every year; the molten rock you see on the surface of the earth comes from deep within the earth.) Put “igneous rock” in both places of the rock cycle. Explain that igneous rock can be made both underground and on the surface of the earth through volcanoes. Show the igneous rock sample to the students.
Discuss and place “magma” on the worksheet. PAUSE and clarify any questions. PLAY, with sound, through the scenes of erosion. Put “weathering” on the rock cycle. PAUSE after you see the pyramid made of sediment, and review the great power of weathering and erosion in making sediment from rock. Explain how the three rock types can undergo weathering and add the appropriate arrows to the rock cycle. PLAY through the folded mountains and the flat layers on the seabed. PAUSE, and, once again, focus students’ attention on the layers.
PLAY through the scene of the granite dome igneous rock) and the sandstone shapes made from the wind. PAUSE Explain that sandstone (sedimentary rock) is soft as you show the sample, and that granite was once a pool of magma inside the earth. PLAY through the image of the basalt columns in Devil’s Tower. STOP after the picture of the “ferocious bear.”
POST VIEWING ACTIVITIES
Step 2. The rock cycle activities. Hand out a complete rockcycle word sheet. The students will refer to this copy while doing the activities. Introduce the four activities. Explain the procedures and expectations. Guide the students through the activities.
Step 3. “Pass
the Word” vocabulary game. Students will review
and reinforce their rock vocabulary as they play this game. Write each
word on a 3 “ X 5” index card. Have students sit in a circle and pass
one card around until you say, “Stop.” The student holding the card must
pronounce it correctly and explain its meaning to the rest of the group.
The student may seek the help of one other student if necessary. Keep
a tally of the number of correct words. Each time the game is played the
class might try to beat its last score.
words: (You may add your own) Rock, Igneous Rock, Cycle, Mineral, Rock
cycle, Erosion, Molten, Weathering, Magma, Pressure and cementing, Lava,
Heat and pressure, Sediments, Cool and harden, Sedimentary rock, Melt,
Step 4. Review
and practice. Complete the rock cycle on the butcher paper or the bulletin
board. Start with magma and guide the students through the complete diagram.
The students will write and add the words.
For additional lesson plans and ideas relating to this topic and many others try TeacherSource at PBS Online! You will find activities, lesson plans, teacher guides and links to other great educational web sites! Search the database by keyword, grade level or subject area! Mathline and Scienceline are also great resources for teachers seeking teaching tips, lesson plans, assessment methods, professional development, and much more!
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