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NTTI UTILIZATION STRATEGIES
Television can be a powerful educational and motivational tool. However, a great deal of the medium's power lies not in itself but in how it is used. Video is not an end in itself but a means toward achieving thoughtfully selected learning goals and objectives. Effective instructional video is not television-to-student instruction but rather teacher-to-student instruction, with video as a vehicle for discovery. Using specific techniques, teachers can strategically use video to promote student interest and understanding by targeting video content and use to promote teachers' own unique instructional agenda.
1) PREVIEW each program carefully to determine its suitability for the lesson's objectives and student's learning outcomes.
2) PREPARE classroom for viewing. Teachers should check equipment (monitor, VCR, remote control), arrange seating and lighting, and cue videotape(s). Lights should be left on as often as possible to reinforce the fact that the video is not a passive entertainment.
3) INTEGRATE the video into the overall learning experience by adding an experimental component to the lesson. Activities can be done prior to viewing; to set the stage, review, provide background information, identify new vocabulary words, or to introduce the topic. The activity can be done after viewing to reinforce, apply, or extend the information conveyed by the program. Often the video can serve as an introduction or motivator for the hands-on activity to come. Again, relevance is key. Activities should be tied directly to the lesson's goals; in this way, all the lesson's components - the video, the activities - are tied to lesson and curriculum objectives.
4) SEGMENT the video to teach the concepts that are most relevant for your lesson topic. It is often unnecessary and time-consuming to screen a program in its entirety. When previewing a program, look for segments particularly relevant or useful to the lesson or activity planned. Often a program has a great deal of information that cannot be digested at once; in that event, it is useful to show the program in segments so that its content can be more easily understood. Even the briefest video clip can spark student interest or demonstrate a concept.
5) FOCUS students' attention by giving them a specific responsibility while viewing. Introduce the tape segments with a question, things to look for, unfamiliar vocabulary, or an activity that will make the program's content more clear or meaningful. By charging students with specific viewing responsibilities, teachers can keep students "on task" and direct the learning experience to the lesson's objectives. Be sure and follow-up during and after viewing the tape.
6) PAUSE while viewing to check student comprehension, ask questions, have students record information, make predictions, examine a chart, formula, or image on the screen more closely, or to have students draw a diagram. It's important to make the viewing as interactive as possible.
7) ELIMINATE either the sound or picture. There are times when you will want your students to concentrate on only the visual or narration. For example, you may want to replay a segment or have students describe what is happening without the assistance of either the visual images or soundtrack. You might initially cover the screen, or turn off the sound, and ask students to guess what is happening based on the narration or visual alone. You may also want to turn off the sound and provide your own narration when the soundtrack is inappropriate for your student's grade or age level.
8) AFTER the Video
Teachers and students alike will find that video is an effective catalyst and facilitator for classroom discourse and analysis. Coupled with hands-on learning, a video-enhanced curriculum is invaluable for expanding the classroom's four walls so that they encompass no less than the universe. By reaching out to students with a medium that is as forceful as it is familiar, teachers can do better what they do best: teach.
Techniques For Using Video with ESL Students
The NTTI methodology is a perfect complement to an ESL program. Video can be an effective and powerful tool for English language learners. By incorporating closed captioning, ESL students are able to see the text and hear the language in a non-threatening format. A 1990 study by the National Captioning Institute has found that closed captioning video has improved comprehension, and overall is very effective for students learning English as a second language. In a 1992 study, NCI found that using captioned materials from the television program 3-2-1 Contact resulted in higher scores on vocabulary and recall of science content for ESL students. Tips for using video with ESL students include:
The multi-sensory processing of audio, video and print aspects of closed captioned television enhances language learning and comprehension.
and IdahoPTV programs that can enrich studies
in science, math, the arts, geography, culture, and other areas of the
curriculum are all available for recording and using, and re-using in
the K-12 classroom, when the time is right. The price for these video
resources is certainly right; theyre free! The hardest part
seems to be just getting them recorded(!). A winning strategy might be
for parents to help with this aspect of bringing low-cost, high-quality,
video resources into their childs classroom. In some Idaho schools,
the parent organization provides classroom teachers with blank videocassettes,
and the teacher has the help of parents to record the television programs
that will eventually be used in the classroom. Would this work at your
Copy Right and Fair
These four factors have become the basis of subsequent
specific interpretative guidelines, including the Fair Use Guidelines
for books and periodicals, music, off-air videotaping and multimedia.
Although they do not have the force of law, these guidelines have been
considered a "safe harbor for permissible use."
IdahoPTV and PBS Extended Copyrights for Teachers
PBS has sought extended extended copyright agreements to make their programming easier for educators use in the classroom. As a result of their efforts, extended educational rights of a year or more have been made available to preschools and K-12 schools for the majority of PBS primetime and children's programs. In some instances the extended rights have been granted for three years and some are even for the life of the tape! The time period is usually defined from the date of the broadcast from which the recording was made or from the date of the original broadcast on public television. And on occasion there may be a fixed expiration date for the rights granted.
So how can you find out the taping rights?Information on the specific extended off-air copyright for each IdahoPTV and PBS program or series can be found at the IdahoPTV Learn web-site, and in the monthly IdahoPTV program guide, Channels. Some programs have only one-year extended copyright, but many of these are re-broadcast each year. Several programs have extended copyright that is unlimited," and lasts as long as your videocassette still works! Other programs have extended copyright that ranges from the one-year to four years. Learn more about copyright by exploring the Multimedia Wharf and Fair Use Harbor to ascertain your rights as indicated in copyright at Copyright Bay. An online tutorial about copyright is also available!
The National Teacher