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Dr. Tetsuden Kashima

Dr. Tetsuden Kashima is a Professor of American Ethnic Studies at the University of Washington. He gave this speech at the "Civil Liberties Symposium II: Presidential Powers In Wartime" at the College of Southern Idaho in Twin Falls, June 2007. This symposium was held in conjunction with the 2007 Pilgrimage to Camp Minidoka organized by the Friends of Minidoka, a group that supports the Minidoka Internment National Monument.

[Image: Tetsuden Kashima]

I'm a sociologist and I've followed historians before but following these two historians in particular - Dr. Sims and Dr. Robinson - is a pretty formidable task. So I'm up here with a great deal of trepidation, especially because what I was going to say about 9066 has been covered so aptly and so I'm sort of rearranging my thoughts. At the university we often are told to be able to be flexible in class although what my main problem I think in class is, that the issue we have with students in a sense that we talk until they go into slumber, and so fitting the apt description of a college professor as someone who talks in your sleep. Before I do that then I'd like to just say a few words so I catch you when you are sort of wide awake.

I want to, this morning, talk about two particular points with respect to the presidential authority during war time - and the first is to talk about two measures. Certainly you've heard about EO9066, but there is another one that has a very close relationship with EO9066 that also affected persons of Japanese ancestry and other persons of non-Japanese ancestry as well. And I want to go a little bit more into that.

And then following that, maybe to make some comments about certain areas of the Second World War under 9066 and the second measure and how it affected various other kinds of individuals, including Jewish refugees from Europe, including people who were designated and labeled as the most troublesome or recalcitrant or the most difficult persons who were taken and the kind of treatment meted out to them under the auspices of these two particular wartime measures signed by, authorized by, Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

So, let me just quickly start with the fact that during the Second World War President Roosevelt inaugurated two measures - the first EO9066 but the second one was called the Alien Enemies Act about two months even before the signing of EO9066 on February 19, 1942. This Alien Enemies Act was signed in terms of the official proclamation on December 7, 1941 after the naval forces of Japan bombed Pearl Harbor. But there is some, I think, legitimate reasons to believe that perhaps it was signed after that date, on December 8th and again later for another group on December 11th.

Now the Enemy Aliens Act is one that was started way back in 1798 -under 1798 as a third article of the Aliens and Sedition Act and then also sort of re-worked in 1918. The Alien Enemies Act is one in which in terms of the Declaration, it says, "Immediately upon declaration of war and if and when an invasion or predatory incursion is perpetrated, attempted or threatened against the Territory of the United States by any foreign nation or government, natives or citizens of the hostile nation 14 years and older may be apprehended, restrained, secured and removed as enemy aliens." After December - actually on December 1st - December 7, 1941, the government of the United States authorized especially its military and justice department to apprehend persons who had been in the main pre-designated as persons who were dangerous enemy aliens and to secure them for what came out to be - for some individuals until the end of the war and for others as well - until 1947, or two years after the war. Included in this group, which is separate from EO9066 came a total of about 32,000 people - actually, 31,899. Of this number the majority were persons of Japanese ancestry. Mainly Japanese Issei men.

Let me make a point here. Japanese Americans and Quid Americans are perhaps the only two groups in America that designate groups of individuals away from the original immigrant generation. Most of us in America - all coming from immigrant stock come from areas in which we designate - only have two designations in terms of the people who come over. The original immigrants and then later we call them American born. And in fact the humorous point among the Chinese is that they have two labels: FOB and ABCs, Foreign born Chinese and American born Chinese. But the Japanese and Koreans designate generations away from the original, so they do it numerically in terms of the Japanese and for the Koreans in terms of the Korean. Japanese first generation immigrants are called Issei. Their children are called the Nisei and they are American born. Then we have third generation, Sansei, Yonsei, Gosei. I'm a Nisei by birth. My mother and father were both Issei. My wife is a Sansei and so our children really are fourth generation Yonsei and we know in Hawaii that there are people who are already fifth and sixth generation Japanese Americans and these generational classifications are not something that sociologists made up. They were part of the classifications used by the community persons and so to indicate different characterological traits, especially social histories. So the Isseis who came were from Japan, spoke Japanese and really could not become American citizens until 1952. They were ineligible for naturalization after the Ozello case and that was allowed in terms of the McCarren-Walter Act in 1952. The Niseis were American citizens and so are the Sansei, Yonsei, Gosei. Is that okay so far, if I just say Nisei and Sansei? I hope some of you understand that. The point is that under the Alien Enemies Act then with 32,000 persons taken the majority, or 17,400, were Japanese Issei men. There were also some women and also some Nisei taken as well. And along with the 17,000 persons of Japanese ancestry, there were 11,500 German, mainly aliens, a few women and a few German-Americans as well, 2,730 Italian Nationals. No women as far as I could find and 183 others living in the United States. They were taken and interned in Justice Department camps and War Department camps usually for the remainder of the war.

This alien enemy situation resulted in about thirty-four different camps of different types and of different duration of existence. Initially, just as with the Japanese Americans who were taken under 9066, there were temporary detention stations and most of them were in the Immigration Naturalization Service stations that were like in San Pedro or in Seattle or in Sharp Park down in California. They are the equivalent to our Tanforan, our Santa Anita Race Track or euphemistically called Camp Harmony up in Seattle. There, the people were taken and then given a hearing. Now a hearing was not one in which it is going to a particular court of law. The people who were brought and given their hearings here were sat down before usually three persons plus an FBI agent and three persons were really community folks. In Nevada for example there was the newspaper editor. There was also a local judge and I think a business person and then the FBI agent. And they heard the evidence and the evidence was prior FBI investigatory findings that had been then reviewed by a committee within the Justice Department called the Special Defense Unit.

The person who was an alien who was picked up after December 7th - and it went on for months and even for years - could not be represented by council. All they could do was to say yes or no to certain kinds of issues and to answer certain questions. "Were you a member of the Kokuryu-ko, the Black Dragon Society?" probably the most famous one that we have that filled the yellow journalism of the World War II period. The Black Dragon Society. I mean just that name is - it evokes terror in all Americans. Or they asked questions such as this, "If you were standing on the beach and the Japanese Navy was coming toward you and in back of you were the American soldiers defending the Pacific coast, which way would you turn and fire?" For the Germans, one question was, "If you are in the Mississippi and the German submarine was coming up the Mississippi River and the Americans were behind you, which way would you fire?"

These are actual questions. You could not be represented by council and Edward Ennis who was head of the Alien Enemies Control Unit told me that all a person had to say was, 'no' and if there is evidence that there was no prior difficulties with respect to their suspect or dangerous classification status that they could be let free. And numbers of them were let free. However, for especially the Japanese, we now know that people who had been asked and acted as translators for these people in the hearings - because they were first generation folks and so they didn't have a very good command of English - we find some very anomalous situations.

As Herb Nicholson, a missionary from Japan, helped translate and he had helped and saw the results of folks, he gave one particular case in Nevada in which I think there were about fifty Issei men who were brought in because they were suspected to be dangerous because they had allowed about a dollar of their paycheck to go to the War Relief Fund for Japan when Japan was fighting China before December 7, 1941. What happened is that of the fifty then, twenty-five of the people were let go and twenty-five were kept for permanent internment and Nicholson asked why these twenty-five people were let go and twenty-five people were kept with the same kind of record and received no answer and Nicholson also then told the FBI, "Folks, you know all these hearings that I have been in you haven't found one shred of evidence as to the real danger to the United States." Moreover Nicholson said, "I don't think you found a single speck of evidence in all your hearings about the dangerousness of these Isseis. They are fine folks." And what Nicholson didn't tell the FBI person in that Nevada hearing was that he had been talking to other Justice Department figures and they had told him that they hadn't found any information - but Nicholson couldn't say that to the particular FBI agent he was talking to. But the FBI agent just shrugged him off and people were sent for permanent internment just as our War Relocation Authority camps and kept there for the duration of the war and more than that. These folks who were taken - before I get into that let me give you and make it up close and personal with a particular story:

There's a man named Genji Mihara from Seattle and later I'll tie back into EO9066 and his consequences because my assertion is that there is a relationship, a very close relationship between actions that occurred under 9066 and those that occurred with respect to the Alien Enemies Act. Mr. Genji Mihara had a small restaurant in Seattle on December 7, 1941. When he was arrested, there were four charges brought against him:

One was that his mother, father and sister were living in Japan. A second one was that he was a member of the Japanese Chamber of Commerce in Seattle. A third was that he had given money to the widows . . . as he was the Vice President of the Seattle Japanese language school PTA and the Justice Department had made the conclusion that being a member of a Japanese language school meant that you were helping to propagate Japanese nationalist ideas to Nisei children who went to the Japanese language schools because all the texts were in Japanese and the text was written in Japanese, and so that was true.

Based upon this then they kept him for permanent internment. We now know that later when he was re-investigated after a number of years in the camps the Justice Department gave him a triple plus rating as being an outstanding individual who posed no threat to the United States and therefore he was released. But before that - so he was arrested on December 7, 1941 and he stayed at the Seattle Immigration Naturalization Service Station until December 23rd. From there he was taken to Missoula, Montana and stayed there until June of '42. From there he was taken to an Army camp in Lordsburg, New Mexico where he stayed there until 1943 and then he was released. But he couldn't go home so the only place he could go was where his families were at, and that was in the War Relocation Authority camp in Minidoka. Was Mr. Mihara a dangerous person? I don't think there is any shred of evidence that in fact he was, but he was kept separated from family and his friends for years.

What happened in the camp? Here I think I would like to quote a story of a man named - or the father of a man named - Mr. Jim Okutsu. Jim Okutsu is also from Seattle and he also - and his family without the father - were also in the Minidoka War Relocation Authority camp. Mr. Okutsu, testifying in front of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians, said, quote "News came that my father was sent to the Maximum Security Prisoner of War Camp in Louisiana and that he was very sick. This was a most trying time on my mother. I could see it tearing her apart - mentally, physically - and there was nothing I could do. In the winter of 1943 we got a wire instructing someone to meet my father at the gate by noon. On the way an old man asked me where the Okutsus lived. I pointed to the direction for him but after waiting three hours at the gate I returned to my barrack. I couldn't believe my eyes. The old man whom I had directed earlier in the day was my father. We hadn't recognized each other. Although my mother felt relieved that my father was back it was a shock to see him in such an emaciated condition. Shortly thereafter she started to get weaker and finally succumbed to a total physical breakdown. My mother's death a few years later was directly attributed to the evacuation."

And so Mr. Mihara and Mr. Okutsu came to the War Relocation Authority camp in Minidoka, the residents there being held under Executive Order 9066 and Public Law 503 as Professor Sims and Professor Robinson so aptly gave you the details. That event has called this the defining event in history of Japanese Americans. That statement is I think true and also can be modified in some way. What we see is that the defining moment really as Professor Robinson talked about was one that didn't occur after December 7, 1941. Its beginning for me started way back in the 1920s when in the Pacific - quite rightly so - the American Government Special Naval Intelligence saw Japan as probably the only military militarily able to threaten the United States in the Pacific and they started to gather intelligence as to what Japan as a particular nation might do. After all, Japan was a nation that was the first Asian nation to win against a European or Caucasian nation in the Russo-Japanese War. It surprised everyone and scared many people outside of Asia.

And so Japan was seen to be a nation in which we had to look out and watch what they were doing. Certainly as part of this then the investigation of persons of Japanese ancestry in America was a logical case. But what I'm not trying to say is that the initial investigation targeted American citizens of Japanese ancestry - the Nisei. After all, in the 1920s and '30s the Nisei were hardly born or those who were born were quite young. The target was Iseis and it wasn't until the late '30s and 1940, '41 that the expansion of persons of Japanese ancestry started to include the Nisei, especially the older Nisei.

My interpretation of this then is that when we talk about the effects of Executive Order 9066 that to me it gets sort of complex in the sense that initially what was going to happen if a war came was aimed at Isei and that is why from the 1939, 1940 period there were discussions between Justice Department and the War Department on what to do when we were going to have a war and initially the war would be concerned with Europe but in the Pacific it was against Japan. And in 1941, in about the middle months, there was agreement between Justice and War as to what to do with people of nationalities of countries with whom we were at war and that is why the Alien Enemies Act was already ready to be signed by the President on the Declaration of War.

However, see the problem to me is that President Roosevelt declared war on December 8th but hadn't proclaimed a war until then publicly and the Alien Enemies Act requires that there be a public proclamation of some sort. And yet people, both German, Italian and Japanese people who were pre-designated were summarily arrested on December 7th and taken as enemy aliens.

But in wartime as Professor Robinson quite aptly points out, things occur when you have that kind of situation but I think in terms of the Constitution and legally, the cart came before the horse in this situation. It's because then of the Alien Enemies Act and then later of the Executive Order 9066 that we find a plethora under the authority of the President of different kinds of holding establishments that authorized various individuals to be placed in certain categories that they could placed in - out of harm's way - for some and in one particular case for humanitarian purposes. Under the Alien Enemies Act, under the proclamation with respect to Germany, Japan and Italy they could be taken and put into the detention stations and the Justice Department camps like Missoula, like Lordsburg that I had mentioned before. And in fact there are about thirty-four of them.

Before the Japanese there were six main camps, especially places like Lordsburg run by the Army and Santa Fe run by the Justice Department. For the 9066 we have obviously the temporary places, the assembly centers and the War Relocation camps. But under 9066 we also have other camps in which individuals who were seen to be different in some way were taken out.

There was a riot in Manzanar in December of 1942 and because of that the "troublemakers" were taken out of Manzanar in mid California and then taken to three particular places, one which is in Utah, the Moab camp right about five miles north of Arches. It's a desolate place now. It used to be an old CCC camp and there they were held until it became too small, they thought because more people would be designated as troublemakers within the War Relocation camps and then a new place was created in Loop, Arizona and taken down there. These people were American citizens. If in fact they were aliens then they could be taken under the Alien Enemies Act out of Manzanar and some were and taken to an alien enemies camp. Is that clear?

Now for those folks then they were the troublemakers. There were also people who were considered to be pro-American in Manzanar who were then threatened by the quote "anti-American." And really it was not anti-American so much as the people in Manzanar and all the camps by December '42 were people who had been subjected to extreme circumstances and actions. They were summarily taken from their homes after EO9066 in April, May, June, put into assembly centers, horse trailers, horse stalls and things like that then put into desolate areas, at that time Minidoka, and people were angry, scared, because they didn't know long they were going to stay. They were forced to suffer conditions they weren't used to with respect to what happened from their homes in southern California or Bellevue or whatever. And quite naturally many of the tensions started to boil by December of '42 and so that to me is one of the reasons why we have this riot, quote "riot", in Manzanar. I won't go into it because there is not much time but there are plenty of books available that describe what happened there.

The end result, however, was the creation of the one camp with respect to Moab and Loop for the troublemakers. Another camp for people who were seen to be pro WRA, pro-American in Death Valley called Cow Creek. These people were allowed to leave there and then to enter into places outside the West Coast, especially like in Denver and places east. There weren't too many of these, only a handful, but what happened is the government created these other camps under the 9066. And then after that, the 9066, then Tule Lake was re-designated from a relocation camp to a segregation camp and I think many of you might know that story but there are plenty of books available. In fact out there, there are two fine books, "Personal Justice Denied", the report on the commission on wartime relocation in terms of civilians, and then "Confinement and Ethnicity" an anthropological book giving you pictures of before, during and after the whole - especially at the War Relocation Authority camps.

So the story is well known but my point is to show and to talk about and to give examples of certain other camps coming under 9066 or Alien Enemies Act. Then where the Tule Lake Camp was re-designated as a segregation camp, the Justice Department also had a camp for their troublemakers - German and Japanese. There are only about seventeen Japanese by the way who were seen as troublemakers and these were often the people who were at Tule Lake as part of the people who had protested the issues there. And because of the turmoil that had gone on there, the government in 1944 allowed Niseis to renounce their citizenship in time of war.

. . . . as aliens and they be treated as if they were Isseis. They were then taken - all five hundred - and Tule Lake about five thousand Niseis renounced their citizenship and we now know that it was because of the turmoil and the internal conditions that were so horrendous in the segregation camp fostered by the Tule Lake camp director, a man named Raymond R. Best and also by the Justice Department folks who in a telegraph said, "The reason why we want to have this renunciation law is so that we can get rid of the Nisei troublemakers." As American citizens they couldn't do what they could with the aliens on the Alien Enemies Act but once they renounced their citizenship then they were aliens that could come under the Alien Enemies Act and thus removed - and even deported as some people were.

And so these people, five hundred of them, were taken down to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and alien enemies camp, and from there many of them, about seventeen, were seen to be the most troublesome people, they were taken to Fort Stanton, New Mexico, the Justice Department segregation camp where a few of the German prisoners with respect to aliens also were there. And the German segregates were there because they tried to escape from the alien enemies camp in Germany. Or in one case, this guy was starting a boxing school ostensibly perhaps, thought the Justice Department, so they would box and fight against the Justice Department guards and so they were considered to be troublemakers so they brought them out and they were kept in this place called Fort Stanton. And interestingly, Fort Stanton was a place in which the Justice Department decided that they would not tell the relatives of those Japanese sergeants where this camp was. They just called it Japanese Segregation Camp #1. All mail was supposed to go to Santa Fe, New Mexico and then routed back to the Fort Stanton camp. But because of the way our bureaucracy works, some of the relatives found out where their fathers, oldest sons were held in Fort Stanton. The point however is, this is another type of camp created under the authority of the Alien Enemies Act.

I think the question was raised about Jewish refugees and Professor Robinson knows more than he has said here obviously, but we found that the refugee camps in Europe were being overflowed with Jewish refugees and also other groups who were fleeing Nazi tyranny. And so President Roosevelt was asked to open up some places in America, in the United States, to take care of this overflow, but he met with various kinds of resistance from Walter Winchell and from other people who saw this as a way that President Roosevelt was trying to bring in an inordinate numbers of persons of Jewish faith into America. And so there was political pressure there and so the end result only a thousand Jewish - well, mainly Jewish refugees from Europe - were allowed to come in. And they were kept in an unused Army facility - I think it was New Jersey - anyway, on the East Coast. The point here is that the authority with respect to their treatment was given to the War Relocation Authority because they had the most immediate experience in working with the civilian population who could be seen as civilian prisoners of war and again, the authority for the WRA comes from eventually executive order 9066 so that's the tie-in with respect to the Presidential powers.

And then with the internment hotels. Luxurious places run by the State Department to hold especially the ambassadors and the consulates of nations with whom we are at war and we treated them well. They had soirees and ate steak and drank champagne and could order things from Montgomery Ward catalogues and Sears Roebuck catalogues. Was it because we were benign? No. It was because if we didn't treat these people well, the State Department argued persuasively, that in fact our diplomatic folks in Germany or Japan or Italy that were kept there as well under their Alien Enemies control unit would face perhaps harsh reprisal as well. But if you compare the treatment of the Japanese ambassador and the German ambassador and others to what happened in Minidoka, Idaho there is really no comparison in that sense of looking out for the interest of the individuals.

Now, under 9066 there is another part that I think bears some introduction. This is the fact that there were some German and Italian individuals who might have come under EO9066. We know that there were because there was a program called an Individual Exclusion Program that was promulgated from August 19, 1942 to really the end of the war but it was sort of ended in July of '43 and into '44. The Individual Exclusion Program was aimed at picking up American citizens of German and Italian ancestry but not to put them away. It was only to exclude them out of the areas designated in terms of an exclusion area and this went across both the Western Defense Command, The Southern Defense Command and the Eastern Defense Command. In all, about 563 mainly German Americans were then picked up and their cases were reviewed and of that number, 254 were actually excluded from the either Western Defense Command especially but the Southern Defense Command and the Eastern Defense Command.

Now there are some differences between the treatment of these German and Italian Americans when you compare them with the other Japanese Americans under EO9066. First, each of these persons had individual hearings and at the hearings they could be represented by council. And when the first people protested, what happened was that the Army decided if anyone was going to institute any lawsuits they sort of just dropped the lawsuit and let the person go. In fact, Attorney General Biddle objected to this whole program on the grounds that it was probably unconstitutional and he refused to prosecute persons that the military wished to exclude from certain areas. It got to the point where one person, Andrillo Silvianno was excluded from the West Coast and the Army found out that he had traveled to Washington DC and was talking to some Justice Department officials and so the Army sent a military police to the Justice Department to try to arrest and to take Silvianno and apparently the Justice Department just told Silvianno to leave by the back door and so they couldn't get him. Eventually however, the action of the Individual Exclusion Program really didn't amount to much because by that time in '44 the commanding general of the Hawaii Defense Command became head of the Western Defense Command. General Eamans took over General Dewitt's position and General Eamans reviewed all the Western Defense Command individual hearings and cases and rescinded pretty much all of them. It is in deep contrast to the arrest and exclusion of nearly 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of whom were American citizens, from that which took place with respect to certain Italian and German ancestry folks.

The other point that I want to make is with respect to presidential authorized measures and this is that whatever the President signed, it must be enforced either wholeheartedly or with some reluctance, or all reluctance by other individuals. And here as Professor Robinson aptly points out, Hawaii can be seen to be - must be seen to be - another kind of case in that situation. He and I were privileged to be in Hawaii together to see a film by Tom Kaufman called "The First Battle: The Battle for Equality in Wartime Hawaii." And as you now know as he reported to you, the general in Hawaii was under orders to do something about persons of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii and there, there were more persons of Japanese ancestry than on the West Coast. They had been bombed by Japan. It was a strategic military place in the Pacific but there was no mass incarceration. Now, General Eamans did not disobey the order given to him by the War Department. What he did however was, selectively enforced the order and he sort of trumped the War Department's orders by saying he had other things to do like winning the war in the Pacific.

As such then, we hear on the mainland that one of the reasons why Hawaii never had this type of mass incarceration was because of the labor issue. People said, Well, if General Eamans had taken all persons of Japanese ancestry and put them, as one suggestion was, to put the Isseis on a deserted island in Hawaii - the Molokai Island I think it was, where the leper colony was and then later to remove persons of Japanese ancestry, the Niseis, to the mainland - it would have decimated the labor force in Hawaii and therefore Eamans didn't do that. That's what Eamans wrote in his telegrams to the War Department to say, "I'm going to go slow," but as an FBI agent had reported to J. Edgar Hoover, Eamans had made the decision quickly - oh no, a little later on - that he wasn't going to do this mass expulsion and I think he did it using the extensive labor issue as the reason but it is more complex than that. As Tom Kaufman points out, during the second World War, over a million people went through Hawaii and so people came through and Kaufman so argues I think - to me persuasively - that the mainland could have supplanted and replaced all the labor that would be taken out if we had removed the Japanese ancestry folks. So labor certainly would have caused a problem but it's not, I don't think, necessarily to be seen as the only issue.

What else happened in Hawaii was this. The Japanese constituted a large segment of the population of Hawaii. They were more integrated in Hawaii than on the West Coast. Their social history was such, it was more recognized by persons in Hawaii, and also there was much better and frequent interaction between persons of Japanese ancestry, Chinese ancestry and non-Asian ancestry there, so that they knew each other and had no necessary fear that there would be a mass uprising by persons of Japanese ancestry in Hawaii to do harms way into the Second World War.

Again, this film is an important way to show that what happened on the West Coast didn't have to happen because it didn't happen in Hawaii. And moreover, the valiant record of the 442nd and the military intelligence people attest to the loyalty of persons of Japanese ancestry and the people in Hawaii knew that. When the call went out for volunteers in Hawaii, ten thousand Niseis in Hawaii volunteered. When the call went out for volunteers from the West Coast, it was a dismal number but you are asking people who are behind barbed wire fences like Minidoka to volunteer for service? Daniel Inouye, senator said, "You know, we from Hawaii, once we found that out, realized how differently we were treated from the people on the mainland, although the people on the mainland spoke more weirdly than we did in Hawaii."

I want to close this really by talking only about the issue - to me the larger issue here - and this is to say that it is something that I hope we don't forget. That we all as Americans consider that the most important principle that to me was lost during that time was a violation of civil liberties but based on the issue of the lack of equality. And I had written before these words:

"Of the many lessons to learn from the incarceration and internment of Japanese Americans in the Second World War, these are the most prominent: the United States has practiced equality for some since its founding days yet equality for all is the goal. Obtaining this lofty end requires at least a modicum of understanding of others. We as a nation must take care not to base our actions on prejudice and stereotypes. The doors to equal treatment have widened in the last seven decades but securing equality for all is still a distant and we hope an achievable goal. It is therefore important to know not only why the expulsion and imprisonment of the Japanese Americans during World War II took place but also how that terrible process unfolded. I'm saying this process requires insights into the methods by which a nation could carry out such a large scaled miscarriage of justice. Only by making the American populace aware can we assure that such injustices will never affect another group of Americans."

And allow me to close with the only joke that I've heard that originates in the nearby war relocation camp. Although many of you have heard me say it before, it bears repeating and since it's a pun I'll say it and then explain it:

What did the Japanese American Mickey Mouse say to his girlfriend? Minnie Doka.

For those of you who didn't laugh, although you maybe did not laugh because of the translation, the Japanese word "doka" means in English "how are you?" Thus Minnie Doka means, "Minnie, how are you?"

And the answer from I think at least all the Niseis who were in Minidoka during World War II was, Get me out of here.

Thank you very much.

Funding provided in part by the generous support of WETA and the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.