# Mars: Standards

## LANGUAGE

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.1

Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section.

### Suggested Lesson

Share opinions about going to Mars for a visit or to live.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.1

Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

### Suggested Lesson

Research and write an informative text piece that explains how the distance and time it takes to travel to Mars creates problems for a manned mission. Include all facts such as resources for a trip, time frames, boredom, health concerns, etc.

## MATH

## First Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.2.

Express the length of an object as a whole number of length units, by laying multiple copies of a shorter object (the length unit) end to end; understand that the length measurement of an object is the number of same-size length units that span it with no gaps or overlaps. Limit to contexts where the object being measured is spanned by a whole number of length units with no gaps or overlaps.

### Suggested Lesson

Using this map, measure the distance of the various trips made by the rover Spirit. Measure in paperclips, cutouts of the rover, footprints, etc. Each label indicates the number of Mars days or sol's.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.OA.3.

Use multiplication and division within 100 to solve word problems in situations involving equal groups, arrays, and measurement quantities, e.g., by using drawings and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

### Suggested Lesson

Solve this problem: If the Mars rover drills into the Martian surface 25 feet on day one, how far will the drill go by day 7 if it continues at that speed each day.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.NF.7.

Compare two decimals to hundredths by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two decimals refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual model.

### Suggested Lesson

Using this graph, compare the distances made by each of the different Moon and Mars rovers during their working lives.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.5.OA.3.

Generate two numerical patterns using two given rules. Identify apparent relationships between corresponding terms. Form ordered pairs consisting of corresponding terms from the two patterns, and graph the ordered pairs on a coordinate plane. For example, given the rule "Add 3" and the starting number 0, and given the rule "Add 6" and the starting number 0, generate terms in the resulting sequences, and observe that the terms in one sequence are twice the corresponding terms in the other sequence. Explain informally why this is so.

### Suggested Lesson

Create a ratio table to compare clock time on Earth with clock time on Mars. Begin the Earth clock and the Mars clock at the "same time" and count the time as the clocks progress through a day or make it more complex by progressing through several days.

# Salmon: Standards

## LANGUAGE

## First Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.1.1

Ask and answer questions about key details in a text.

## Suggested Lesson

Read aloud the information found on the Salmon facts page. Create questions together as a class that can be answered from the passage.

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.2.5

Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

Adopt an animated salmon and watch the challenges that a salmon must endure in order to live a full life. Write a descriptive paragraph telling about your salmon and what happened to it during its life. (requires Adobe Shockwave)

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.6.2

Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments.

## Suggested Lesson

Make a detailed list of challenges that could shorten the life of a salmon and write it into paragraph form.

## Math

## First Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.1.OA.A.1

Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.

## Suggested Lesson

Use fish crackers to represent salmon while discussing addition and subtraction of salmon from a river or lake. Talk about salmon leaving to head to the ocean or being eaten by predators, restocking a lake or river from a hatchery and hatching of alevin as variables.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.NBT.A.2

Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.1

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table. For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), . . .

## Suggested Lesson

Using a map and a ruler, calculate the distance that a salmon travels from a given hatching site to the ocean and back. Follow all available rivers and tributaries in order to make the most accurate analysis.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3c

Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent.

## Suggested Lesson

Using the following chart, and/or additional resources, create a pie chart that represents the life of a salmon in every stage.

# Trees: Standards

## Language

## First Grade (and others)

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.3

Write narratives in which they recount two or more appropriately sequenced events, include some details regarding what happened, use temporal words to signal event order, and provide some sense of closure.

## Also applies to grades 2-6:

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.3

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.3

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.3

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.3

## Suggested Lesson

After discussing how tree rings record the growth of a tree, create a tree ring timeline of your own life. Begin with a center ring for babyhood and work outward with a new ring for each year of life. Write about important events. View additional information.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

Learn about the process of photosynthesis and write a text explaining, in order, how the process works.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

## Suggested Lesson

Learn about the water cycle and write a text explaining, in order, how water cycles through the different phases.

## Math

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.D.9

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

## Suggested Lesson

Count the tree rings from a real tree sample. Compare the numbers with events in local, national or world history and plot them on the ring or on a graph. Show what historical event was happening when the tree grew that ring.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1

Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

## Suggested Lesson

Take a walk around the school and count the trees. Create a pie graph showing the fraction of trees which are deciduous or coniferous compared to the whole.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.C.6

Measure areas by counting unit squares (square cm, square m, square in, square ft, and improvised units).

## Suggested Lesson

Trace a leaf onto graph paper and then by counting the squares, identify the area. Halves and thirds of squares will need to be combined together to make whole squares. Making an estimate beforehand would be a great introduction.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.A.1

Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators.

*For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd*

## Suggested Lesson

Calculate the fraction of trees on the school ground or in the area that are of a particular species. Get in touch with a neighboring classroom from another school and add your fractional species together. Write a contextual problem to match. Do the same for a subtraction version.

# Muscles: Standards

## Language

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.8

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

## Suggested Lesson

Create a T chart of things your body does voluntarily and things it does on its own without thinking about it.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.1

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons.

## Suggested Lesson

What if we could not bend our arms or our legs? Try performing your regular tasks during an hour without bending these limbs. Write a paragraph telling how bending muscles is important to our daily functions.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

Research a set of muscles. Write a paper explaining what you found out regarding the science of those muscles.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.6.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics, texts, and issues, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

Leonardo Da Vinci was one of the first artist to draw the human muscular system and skeletal system in detail. View some of his early drawings. Discuss why you think these are important to science and art.

## Math

## All Grades

#### All math standards apply and all grade levels

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1

Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

*and*

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.B.3

Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. *For example, draw a bar graph in which each square in the bar graph might represent 5 pets*.

## Suggested Lesson

Hold an object out at arm's length — a book or a basketball. Time the period a person can hold the object before they feel the need to put it down. Take a 5 minute rest and repeat. Chart the time difference between the two endurance measures. Compare different people. Compare different ages. What can you hypothesize about your results?

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.2

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

## Suggested Lesson

Using the following pdf worksheet, measure the heart rate after exercise and graph the results.

Very cross-curricular with science — asks for hypothesis.

# Simple Machines: Standards

## Language

## First Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

## Suggested Lesson

Select a simple machine group and then go on a treasure hunt to find as many common items as you can that fit that category. List them.

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.8

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8

Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

## Suggested Lesson

Use the following worksheet to predict how many simple machines are found in the classroom. Hunt for them and answer the worksheet questions.

Page 1 only for grade 2; both pages for grade 3.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.7

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

## Suggested Lesson

Research the life of Leonardo da Vinci and write about one of his inventions.

## Math

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

## Suggested Lesson

Count the number of a given simple machine found in the pictures of a read-aloud story. For example: How many wheels can we find in the book: **Wheels on The Bus**?

## First Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.A.1

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

## Suggested Lesson

Lay out several levers. Compare their length and discuss how high an object could be lifted using each lever. Add a fulcrum and have the same discussion.

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

## Suggested Lesson

Measure the distance that a wheel travels in one turn. Calculate how many turns that wheel will make over a given distance.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.G.A.1

Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

## Suggested Lesson

Using points, lines, segments, rays and angles, design a simple Rube Goldberg path using simple classroom objects such as string, pencils, rulers, books, etc.

# Weather: Standards

## Language

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.K.4

Describe familiar people, places, things, and events and, with prompting and support, provide additional detail.

## Suggested Lesson

Discuss the seasons and what kinds of weather are typically found in each. Do you have all of these types of weather where you live?

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.2.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

## Suggested Lesson

Using the Beaufort Scale, small groups should work together to determine the strength of the wind and discuss the number they would assign to the wind. Determine if everyone assessed the wind as the same measurement. Why or why not?

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.3

Explain the relationships or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

## Suggested Lesson

Read about two related weather topics such as tornadoes/hurricanes, anemometer/Beaufort Scale, or rain/snow. Write a paragraph explaining the relationships between the two.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.L.6.6

Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases; gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.

## Suggested Lesson

Read the following article about the different names assigned to tornadoes around the country. Discuss why this happens. What names are used in your local area? Why do you think that regional changes happen to words? (i.e. pancakes, flapjacks, hotcakes, griddlecakes, etc.)

## Math

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.Math.Content.K.MD.B.3

Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.

## Suggested Lessons

Sort various weather related pictures and classify them. Count the pictures. View a worksheet to use, or use a different one.

## First Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.1.NBT.B.3

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

## Suggested Lesson

Using a weather map, compare the temperatures of various towns in your area for a given day. Discuss which ones were warmer, cooler, by how much?

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.3

Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

## Suggested Lessons

Rainwater is measured in inches. Using a ruler, measure water in various containers and place them in order from smallest to largest. Does the size of the container matter?

Practice with whole numbers and mixed numbers.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.4.MD.A.1

Know relative sizes of measurement units within one system of units including km, m, cm; kg, g; lb, oz.; l, ml; hr, min, sec. Within a single system of measurement, express measurements in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Record measurement equivalents in a two-column table.

*For example, know that 1 ft is 12 times as long as 1 in. Express the length of a 4 ft snake as 48 in. Generate a conversion table for feet and inches listing the number pairs (1, 12), (2, 24), (3, 36), . . . *

## Suggested Lesson

Measure the time it takes for an ice cube to melt at room temperature. At the same time place an ice cube in a refrigerator. When the room temp ice cube has completely mantled, check the one in the refrigerator. Discuss the difference between the two.

# Birds of Prey: Standards

## Language

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.K.2

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

## Suggested Lesson

Draw a picture of a bird of prey and tell one true fact about it.

## First Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.1.1

Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.

## Suggested Lesson

Read **Owl Moon** by Jane Yolen and discuss the reasons why the girl in the story had to be so quiet and brave when she went owling with her father.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.4.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts, building on others' ideas and expressing their own clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

In small groups read various books on birds of prey. Come together to discuss your favorite bird and why.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.1

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

## Suggested Lesson

Ben Franklin wanted to choose the turkey as our National Bird. Write 3 paragraphs stating your opinion of this choice as compared to the Bald Eagle.

## Math

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

## Suggested Lesson

Birds' wingspans are significant to their ability to fly and to hunt. View a wing diagram. Now measure your "wingspan." Compare your span to the birds of prey and to each other.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1

Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

## Suggested Lesson

Using this wingbeat chart, create a number line of the wingbeats of the various birds of prey to show how they compare.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.6.RP.A.3a

Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole-number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios.

## Suggested Lesson

Create a ratio table relating some aspect of birds of prey (wingspan to beak size, amount of food eaten to distance traveled, height of bird to wingspan, etc.) for a variety of birds of prey — some research may be required.

# The Earth: Standards

## Language

## First Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

## Suggested Lesson

Draw a picture of the layers of the earth and label them.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.1

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

## Suggested Lesson

Tell about your favorite season and why. Use the changes that come about in nature and the activities you like to do because of those changes.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

## Suggested Lesson

Research and write a paper explaining the changes that happen in nature when the seasons change.

## Math

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

## Suggested Lesson

Using a map, count the number of continents and oceans there are on the earth. Make a graph about what you found.

## Second Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.NBT.A.2

Fluently add and subtract within 1000 using strategies and algorithms based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction.

## Suggested Lesson

Using this diagram of the layers of the earth, calculate the distance of each of the earth's layers. Find another site to help translate each layer from km to miles.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.5.NF.B.6

Solve real world problems involving multiplication multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

# Garbage: Standards

## Language

## First Grade (and others)

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.8

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

## Suggested Lesson

Make a list of things that can be recycled.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

## Suggested Lesson

How long does trash last? Take a look at this site to do the experiment suggested, then write what you found out.

## Fourth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.1

Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information.

## Suggested Lesson

Write a letter to a real or imaginary friend explaining to them why it is important to recycle, protect the environment, or conserve resources.

## Sixth Grade

#### CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content.

## Suggested Lesson

Gather household items that might be thrown away by most people. Make a list of useful ways that those items could be repurposed. Do some research, if necessary, to get in the swing of it. Get creative — you might think of some use for something, that no one else will think of.

## Math

## Kindergarten

#### CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

## Suggested Lesson

Sort and count the number of each type of object in the recycling bin in the classroom.

## Third Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.2

Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.

## Suggested Lesson

Towards the end of the day, go through the garbage cans in the classroom and sort how many things were thrown away that could have been recycled, reused or repurposed. You might include other classrooms in the sort. Look for paperclips, crayons and pencils - just as examples. Weigh your sorts to see how much trash isn't actually trash. Have a class discussion about what could be done to make changes.

## Fifth Grade

#### CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.3

Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement.

## Suggested Lesson

Gather compostable matter and create a compost bin on your school property or off-site, if necessary. Weight all of the matter as you deposit it in the heap. Measure the volume. Weigh it when it has completed its decomposition. Measure the volume again. Is there a difference? Discuss how and why. What can you do with your compost? Create a table of your findings.