CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.B.5 [CCSS page]
Use addition and subtraction within 100 to solve word problems involving lengths that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as drawings of rulers) and equations with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
Using paper versions of thermometers, fill in the thermometers to identify freezing and boiling points on both a Fahrenheit and Celsius scale. Practice reading temperature and temperature changes too. Get some thermometer worksheets here.
CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]
Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
In a glass container, mix ¼ cup vinegar with 1 tablespoon of baking soda. Watch the reaction. When it has stopped creating foam, add an antacid tablet such as a Rolaid or a Tums. Measure with a stopwatch to see how long the mixture takes to deplete the bubbles to almost nothing.
CCSS.Math.Content.5.NBT.B.6 [CCSS page]
Find whole-number quotients of whole numbers with up to four-digit dividends and two-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models.
Measure and calculate the density of several liquids. Find instructions for this activity here.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-1 [ICS page]
Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.
Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. Observations could include color, strength, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-3 [ICS page]
Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.
A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted small objects.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-4 [ICS page]
Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Sometimes these changes are reversible, and sometimes they are not. Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures. Examples of irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-1 [ICS page]
Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects. Other examples of evidence supporting a model could include compressing air in syringe, dissolving sugar in water, and evaporating salt water.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-2 [ICS page]
Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.
The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. No matter what reaction or change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. Examples of reactions or changes could include phase changes, dissolving, and mixing that form new substances.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-3 [ICS page]
Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. Examples of materials to be identified could include baking soda and other powders, metals, minerals, and liquids. Examples of properties could include color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, and solubility.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-4 [ICS page]
Conduct an investigation to determine whether the mixing of two or more substances results in new substances
When two or more different substances are mixed, a new substance with different properties may be formed.
Sixth Grade/Middle School
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-1 [ICS page]
Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-2 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties (for any bulk quantity under given conditions) that can be used to identify it. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. Assessment may include analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor. Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-3 [ICS page]
Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society.
In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-4 [ICS page]
Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using these models of matter. Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water or carbon dioxide (compounds.)
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-5 [ICS page]
Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved.
Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. However, the total number of each type of atom is conserved, and thus the mass does not change. Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-6 [ICS page]
Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
Some chemical reactions release energy, others store energy. The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system's material). The details of that relationship depend on the type of atom or molecule and the interactions among the atoms in the material. Temperature is not a direct measure of a system's total thermal energy. The total thermal energy (sometimes called total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.
Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
Life Sciences LS1-MS-6 [ICS page]
Develop a model to describe how food is rearranged through chemical reactions, forming new molecules that support growth and/or release energy as this matter moves through an organism.
Within individual organisms, food moves through a series of chemical reactions (cellular respiration) in which it is broken down and rearranged to form new molecules, to support growth, or to release energy. Emphasis is on describing that molecules are broken apart and put back together and that in this process, energy is released. Also understanding that the elements in the products are the same as the elements in the reactants.