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Force and Motion: Standards

Idaho Common Core State Standards

Here are correlations to the National Common Core Language and Math standards and to the Idaho State Science Standards. If you'd like, you may go directly to the Idaho science standards for this topic. For more information about the overall standards, see the complete Idaho Content Standards for Science, the Next Generation Science Standards, the Common Core Language standards, or the Common Core Math standards.

Language

Kindergarten

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.K.2 [CCSS page]

Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic.

Suggested Lessons

Draw a picture explaining the scientific difference between pushing and pulling.

Third Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.SL.3.1a [CCSS page]

Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.

Suggested Lessons

Explain the science of heat from friction, such as when you rub your hands together.

Sixth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.6.2a [CCSS page]

Introduce a topic; organize ideas, concepts, and information, using strategies such as definition, classification, comparison/contrast, and cause/effect; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., charts, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.

Suggested Lessons

Using appropriate vocabulary words, write a scientific description of the forces at work when a T-ball is hit from its T. Include all scientific details that take place in the force and motion of the bat, the ball and any effects of this event.

Math

Second Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

Suggested Lessons

Using a force meter (spring scale), measure how much force is needed to move a book five inches across a smooth table. Experiment with other classroom items. Here are instructions using a mug as an example.

Third Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.

Suggested Lessons

Predict how long it will take a ball to roll a measured distance over a variety of surfaces. Roll the ball several times over the surfaces and chart the time. Suggested surfaces: blacktop, gym floor, grass, sandbox, carpet, etc. Note the effect of friction in the experiment.

Fifth Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.5.MD.C.4 [CCSS page]

Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units.

Suggested Lessons

Place a string through a straw. Inflate a balloon and estimate its volume using centimeter cubes. Tape the straw to the side of an inflated balloon. Measure how far the balloon will travel when the opening of the balloon is released and the air is allowed to escape. Make changes to the volume of air in the balloon, estimate the volume again and chart the distance.

Science

Kindergarten

Physical Sciences: PS1-K-1 [ICS page]

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.

Supporting Content:

Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. When objects touch or collide, they push on one another and can change motion. A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly. Examples of pushes or pulls could include a string attached to an object being pulled, a person pushing an object, a person stopping a rolling ball, and two objects colliding and pushing on each other.

Physical Sciences: PS1-K-2 [ICS page]

Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

Supporting Content:

A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.

Third Grade

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-1 [ICS page]

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

Supporting Content:

Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object's speed or direction of motion. Examples could include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving, and balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all.

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-2 [ICS page]

Make observations and/or measurements of an object's motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

Supporting Content:

Force applied to an object can alter the position and motion of that object: revolve, rotate, float, sink, fall, and at rest. The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, and two children on a see-saw.

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-3 [ICS page]

Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other.

Supporting Content:

Examples of an electric force could include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper. Examples of a magnetic force could include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause and effect relationships could include how the distance between objects affects strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-4 [ICS page]

Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.

Supporting Content:

Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.

Fourth Grade

Physical Sciences: PS1-4-1 [ICS page]

Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object.

Supporting Content:

The faster a given object is moving, the more energy it possesses.

Physical Sciences: PS1-4-3 [ICS page]

Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide.

Supporting Content:

When objects collide, energy can be transferred from one object to another, thereby changing their motion.

Fifth Grade

Physical Sciences: PS2-5-1 [ICS page]

Support an argument that the gravitational force exerted by Earth on objects is directed down.

Supporting Content:

The gravitational force of Earth acting on an object near Earth's surface pulls that object toward the planet's center. "Down" is a local description of the direction that points toward the center of the spherical Earth.

Sixth Grade/Middle School

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-1 [ICS page]

Apply Newton's Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.

Supporting Content:

For any pair of interacting objects, the force exerted by the first object on the second object is equal in strength to the force that the second object exerts on the first, but in the opposite direction (Newton's third law). Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-2 [ICS page]

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

Supporting Content:

The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion. All positions of objects and the directions of forces and motions must be described in an arbitrarily chosen reference frame and arbitrarily chosen units of size. Emphasis is on balanced (Newton's First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton's Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-3 [ICS page]

Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces.

Supporting Content:

Electric and magnetic (electromagnetic) forces can be attractive or repulsive, and their sizes depend on the magnitudes of the charges, currents, or magnetic strengths involved and on the distances between the interacting object. Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-4 [ICS page]

Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects.

Supporting Content:

Gravitational forces are always attractive. There is a gravitational force between any two masses, but it is very small except when one or both of the objects have large mass-e.g., Earth and the sun. Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-5 [ICS page]

Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact.

Supporting Content:

Forces that act at a distance (electric, magnetic, and gravitational) can be explained by fields that extend through space and can be mapped by their effect on a test object (a charged object, or a ball, respectively). Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.

Physical Sciences: PS3-MS-1 [ICS page]

Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

Supporting Content:

Motion energy is properly called kinetic energy; it is proportional to the mass of the moving object and grows with the square of its speed. Emphasis is on descriptive relationships between kinetic energy and mass separately from kinetic energy and speed. Examples could include riding a bicycle at different speeds, rolling different sizes of rocks downhill, and getting hit by a whiffle ball versus a tennis ball.

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