CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.K.3 [CCSS page]
With prompting and support, describe the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
From a book or pictures, identify common objects in their states such as ice cubes, a glass of juice or helium in a balloon.
CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.C.4 [CCSS page]
Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.
List, sort, and count all of the solids, liquids and gases that your class can find using a picture or photo that contains multiple examples of the three states of matter or use this sort of activity. Create a graph of the findings.
CCSS.Math.Content.3.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]
Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l).¹ Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem.²
Measure how long it takes for an ice cube to completely change to liquid state at room temperature. Compare to the length of time it takes to change an equal amount of water to water vapor at room temperature.
CCSS.Math.Content.6.NS.C.5 [CCSS page]
Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation.
Absolute 0 is a temperature at which there is absolutely no molecular activity and which scientists continue to attempt to achieve. Use this interactive scale to determine common temperatures of things found in nature and around us. With teacher help, calculate differences for temperatures above and below freezing.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-1 [ICS page]
Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.
Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be solid, liquid, or gas depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. Observations could include color, texture, hardness, and flexibility. Patterns could include the similar properties that different materials share.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-2 [ICS page]
Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.
Examples of properties could include, strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and absorbency. Different properties are suited to different purposes.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-3 [ICS page]
Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.
A great variety of objects can be built up from a small set of pieces. Examples of pieces could include blocks, building bricks, or other assorted small objects.
Physical Sciences: PS1-2-4 [ICS page]
Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
Heating or cooling a substance may cause changes that can be observed. Examples of reversible changes could include materials such as water and butter at different temperatures (states of matter). Examples of irreversible changes could include cooking an egg, freezing a plant leaf, and heating paper.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-2-3 [ICS page]
Obtain information to identify where water is found on Earth and that it can be solid, liquid or gas.
Water exists as solid ice and in liquid form.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-1 [ICS page]
Develop a model to describe that matter is made of particles too small to be seen.
Matter of any type can be subdivided into particles that are too small to see, but even then the matter still exists and can be detected by other means. A model showing that gases are made from matter particles that are too small to see and are moving freely around in space can explain many observations, including the inflation and shape of a balloon and the effects of air on larger particles or objects. Other examples of evidence supporting a model could include compressing air in syringe, dissolving sugar in water, and evaporating salt water.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-2 [ICS page]
Measure and graph quantities to provide evidence that regardless of the type of change that occurs when heating, cooling, or mixing substances, the total weight of matter is conserved.
The amount (weight) of matter is conserved when it changes form, even in transitions in which it seems to vanish. No matter what change in properties occurs, the total weight of the substances does not change. Examples of changes could include phase changes.
Physical Sciences: PS1-5-3 [ICS page]
Make observations and measurements to identify materials based on their properties.
Measurements of a variety of properties can be used to identify materials. Examples of materials to be identified could include powders, metals, minerals, and liquids. Examples of properties could include color, hardness, reflectivity, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, response to magnetic forces, and solubility.
Earth and Space Sciences: SS2-5-2 [ICS page]
Describe and graph the amounts and percentages of water and fresh water in various reservoirs to provide evidence about the distribution of water on Earth.
Most fresh water is in glaciers, polar ice caps, or underground; only a tiny fraction is in streams, lakes, wetlands, and the atmosphere.
Sixth Grade/Middle School
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-1 [ICS page]
Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.
Substances are made from different types of atoms, which combine with one another in various ways. Atoms form molecules that range in size from two to thousands of atoms. Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-2 [ICS page]
Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.
Each pure substance has characteristic physical and chemical properties that can be used to identify it. Substances react chemically in characteristic ways. In a chemical process, the atoms that make up the original substances are regrouped into different molecules, and these new substances have different properties from those of the reactants. Analysis may include the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-4 [ICS page]
Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.
The changes of state that occur with variations in temperature or pressure can be described and predicted using models of matter. Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawings and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water or carbon dioxide (compounds.)
Physical Sciences: PS1-MS-6 [ICS page]
Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.
The temperature of a system is proportional to the average internal kinetic energy and potential energy per atom or molecule (whichever is the appropriate building block for the system's material). The total thermal energy (sometimes called total internal energy) of a system depends jointly on the temperature, the total number of atoms in the system, and the state of the material.
Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it.
The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.
Physical Sciences: PS3-MS-3 [ICS page]
Apply scientific principles to design, construct, and test a device that either minimizes or maximizes thermal energy transfer.
Energy is spontaneously transferred out of hotter regions or matter and into colder ones. Examples of devices could include an insulated box, a solar cooker, and a Styrofoam cup.
The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.
Physical Sciences: PS3-MS-4 [ICS page]
Plan an investigation to determine the relationships among the energy transferred, the type of matter, the mass, and the change in the average kinetic energy of the particles as measured by the temperature of the sample.
Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of particles of matter. The relationship between the temperature and the total energy of a system depends on the types, states, and amounts of matter present. The amount of energy transfer needed to change the temperature of a matter sample by a given amount depends on the nature of the matter, the size of the sample, and the environment.
Earth and Space Sciences: ESS2-MS-[ICS page]
Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity.
Emphasis is on the ways water changes its state as it moves through the multiple pathways of the hydrologic cycle. Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation.