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Salmon: Glossary

A

alevin
young salmon shortly after hatching that still have the yolk sac attached
anadromous
(Greek for "running upward") fish that are born in fresh water, move to salt water to feed, and return to fresh water to spawn

B

barges
flat boats used for hauling

C

camouflage
the ability to hide or blend into the environment
catadromous
fish that are born in salt water, move to fresh water to feed, and return to salt water to spawn
commercial
related to earning money

D

depression
deeper spot in the stream bottom
diadromous
fish that can live in fresh and salt water, at different times in their lives
downstream
moving in the direction of water flow
drought
a period of low rainfall

E

extinction
none of a species lives any more

F

fry
stage of a salmon's life between alevin and smolt - about 1 and a quarter inches long

G

genetics
the science of passing traits from one generation to the next - from parent to child

H

hatcheries
a place for hatching eggs
homing
the behavior of returning home to the place in the stream where hatching took place

L

lateral
along the side of the fish about midway between the dorsal fin and the pelvic fin

M

migrate (migration)
to move from one habitat or region to another seasonally

O

olfactory receptors
the nerves of a body that respond to smells
onchorhynchus
scientific name for salmon and related fish
opercula
part of a body that functions as a lid or covering - parts of the gill

P

parr marks
stripes on the sides of a young salmon fry
predation
the act of being a predator
predator
an animal that hunts for its food

R

redd
the nests dug in the gravel by female salmon
reservoir
a man-made lake for water storage behind a dam

S

scales
the outer layer of a fish's body - small overlapping plate-like structures
school
the group name for a collection of fish
sediment
a collection of dirt and organic matter that settles to the bottom of bodies of water
smolt
salmon of a certain size (generally 4-7 inches) as they begin seaward migration and smoltification
smoltification
process of changes that young salmon undergo when they get ready to live in salt water
spawn (spawning)
to release eggs or the process of releasing eggs

T

turbine
part of a dam responsible for creating electricity, a spinning machine

U

upstream
in the opposite direction of water flow

V

vertebrate
animals with backbones

Z

zooplankton
one celled animals
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