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Simple Machines: Standards

Idaho Common Core State Standards

Here are correlations to the National Common Core Language and Math standards and to the Idaho State Science Standards. If you'd like, you may go directly to the Idaho science standards for this topic. For more information about the overall standards, see the complete Idaho Content Standards for Science, the Next Generation Science Standards, the Common Core Language standards, or the Common Core Math standards.

Language

First Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.1.8 [CCSS page]

With guidance and support from adults, recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Suggested Lesson

Select a simple machine group and then go on a treasure hunt to find as many common items as you can that fit that category. List them.

Second Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.2.8 [CCSS page]

Recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question.

Third Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.8 [CCSS page]

Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories.

Suggested Lesson

Use the following worksheet to predict how many simple machines are found in the classroom. Hunt for them and answer the worksheet questions.

Page 1 only for grade 2, both pages for grade 3.

Third Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.3.2 [CCSS page]

Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly.

Suggested Lesson

Invent a gadget using one or more simple machines. Then write about the invention. Click here for a writing prompt and more details.

Fifth Grade

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.5.7 [CCSS page]

Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.

Suggested Lesson

Research the life of Leonardo da Vinci and write about one of his inventions.

Math

Kindergarten

CCSS.Math.Content.K.CC.B.4 [CCSS page]

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

Suggested Lesson

Count the number of a given simple machine found in the pictures of a read aloud story. For example: How many wheels can we find in the book, Wheels on The Bus?

First Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.1.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Order three objects by length; compare the lengths of two objects indirectly by using a third object.

Suggested Lesson

Lay out several levers. Compare their length and discuss how high an object could be lifted using each lever. Add a fulcrum and have the same discussion.

Second Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.2.MD.A.1 [CCSS page]

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

Suggested Lesson

Measure the distance that a wheel travels in one turn. Calculate how many turns that wheel will make over a given distance.

Fourth Grade

CCSS.Math.Content.4.G.A.1 [CCSS page]

Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

Suggested Lesson

Using points, lines, segments, rays and angles, design a simple Rube Goldberg path using simple classroom objects such as string, pencils, rulers, books, etc.

Science

Kindergarten

Physical Sciences: PS1-K-1 [ICS page]

Plan and conduct an investigation to compare the effects of different strengths or different directions of pushes and pulls on the motion of an object.

Supporting Content:

Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions. Pushing or pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it. A bigger push or pull makes things speed up or slow down more quickly.

Physical Sciences: PS1-K-2 [ICS page]

Analyze data to determine if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a push or a pull.

Supporting Content:

A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Examples of problems requiring a solution could include having a marble or other object move a certain distance, follow a particular path, and knock down other objects. Examples of solutions could include tools such as a ramp to increase the speed of the object and a structure that would cause an object such as a marble or ball to turn.

Second Grade

Physical Sciences: PS1-2-2 [ICS page]

Analyze data obtained from testing different materials to determine which materials have the properties that are best suited for an intended purpose.

Supporting Content:

Examples of properties could include, strength, flexibility, hardness, texture, and absorbency. Different properties are suited to different purposes.

Third Grade

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-1 [ICS page]

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object.

Supporting Content:

Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object's speed or direction of motion.

Physical Sciences: PS1-3-2 [ICS page]

Make observations and/or measurements of an object's motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion.

Supporting Content:

Force applied to an object can alter the position and motion of that object: revolve, rotate, float, sink, fall, and at rest. The patterns of an object's motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, and two children on a see-saw.

Sixth Grade/Middle School

Physical Sciences: PS2-MS-2 [ICS page]

Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object's motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object.

Supporting Content:

The motion of an object is determined by the sum of the forces acting on it; if the total force on the object is not zero, its motion will change. The greater the mass of the object, the greater the force needed to achieve the same change in motion. For any given object, a larger force causes a larger change in motion.

Engineering and Technology Standards Content - All Grades

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering. Such problems may have many acceptable solutions. Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems. Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account. The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solution.

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions. A solution needs to be tested, and then modified on the basis of the test results in order to improve it. The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution. There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet criteria and constraints of a problem.

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Because there is always more than one possible solution to a problem, it is useful to compare and test designs. Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.

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